This week author Adrian Gostick joins the QSR Nation crew to discuss how the modern workforce is evolving and what that can mean for any business including foodservice. This is a fascinating discussion about winning the talent war and teamwork you can’t miss. For more information about Adrian, visit or

JOSH ANDERSON:  Hey everybody, welcome back to QSR Nation. As always, we have Josh, Tony, Grant, and Beth here from the PFSbrands national headquarters in Holts Summit, Missouri, to talk about foodservice marketing and business strategies for success. Today we are very honored to have Adrian Gostick on the line with us today. He is the author of over 15 books, including one released last spring called The Best Team Wins, so welcome to the podcast, Adrian.

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  Thanks, Josh. Thanks, everybody for having me.

BETH OUTZ:  Welcome.


GRANT SCHULTE:  We’re glad to have you here.

JOSH ANDERSON:  Yeah, we’re pretty excited. We’ve started to read the newest book, and we’ve read The Levity Effect and we really enjoyed it, so if you wouldn’t mind just kind of go in and tell us a little bit about your background and how you got to where you are today.

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  Well, you bet. For 20 years now, my co-author Chester Elton and I, we’ve been researching and working with a lot of great organizations in food and beverage as well as manufacturing, finance, all sorts of great organizations around the world, trying to move their employee engagement scores and working on their cultures, and one of the things we’ve found as we’ve done all this work is the teams really vary depending on where you go.

You could be in the Cincinnati office and things are just running great, and you go down the street and the next branch, the next location, the next office just isn’t clicking, so we knew that there are differences, as we all know, between teams, and a lot of the difference is really in the managers and how they lead. When you look at the great books that have been written on teamwork – and there are lots of great books out there, you know, The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, and there’s some great work by Richard Hackman of Harvard – unfortunately, a lot of those books were written 20 years ago now, and time flies and we forget that.

So what we wanted to do is understand what great teams are doing differently today, what’s changed in the last decade or so like millennials coming into the workplace, or we now have gig employees, we now have remote employees, we have a speed of change that is unlike anything we’ve ever seen before, we have competition that’s increasing, etcetera, so how do you manage people in this kind of environment and how do you create great teams in this kind of world, so that’s really how we got to where we are today.

JOSH ANDERSON:  Well, you guys are doing a great job of it. This book, like I said earlier before we got the podcast started, just getting through the first chapter even just makes you just want to learn more because it’s just crazy eye-opening, and it also presents some great challenges.

BETH OUTZ:  100%. One of the things that really stood out to me when we first opened up the book was about the story of Chris Hatfield and how inspirational that is, and it’s something that you want to make sure that you do relate that to every single employee and member of your company just because of how inspirational and how motivational that can be, and it shows that genuine appreciation and just that empathetic nature that you want every single person to have within your company.

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  Yeah, it’s so true. You know, Chris Hatfield, for those of you who don’t know, he’s an astronaut, he was the Commander of the International Space Station, and for six months ran an amazing team up there. They not only had tremendous success with their scientific experiments and everything they were doing up there but when we met Chris, one of the things he told us is that in six months his team never had a single disagreement, never a single argument, which is pretty amazing considering most teams can’t go a day without arguing let alone six months.

JOSH ANDERSON:  Yeah, these guys share an office and they argue all the time.

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  I think that’s right but this is sort of the epitome of today’s modern team leader, and how did Chris do it? Well, he got to know his people. He moved to Russia for a while because a couple of his astronauts would be Russian, the cosmonauts there, he moved to America for a while because he’s a Canadian guy, he moved to America, he learned how his American astronauts grew up. He learned Russian, he got to know their lives. They even role-played how they would help each other if they lost a loved one while they were in space, which actually did happen to one of the astronauts but they were ready for it because by the time they launched themselves into space, they knew each other’s backstories, they had each other’s backs, and they were a solidified team.

JOSH ANDERSON:  Yeah, that’s definitely great, that’s a great story. As I said, we’ve all started to dive into the newest book, The Best Team Wins. It seems like it really covers the five disciplines of a great leader, is that correct?

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  Well, it does. One of the things we did, we said look, there are a lot of good foundational books out there on leading teams, and we didn’t go into things like other books will talk about like, you know, you’ve got to build a trusting relationship, you’ve got to communicate with your people. What we tried to find were the five disciplines that are a little different and sometimes counterintuitive. For instance, one of the things we found – and now this is based on the 850,000-person study from every industry, from food and beverage to manufacturing to healthcare, etcetera – and so one of the things we found is that in great teams today, they challenge everything. Now, that’s not what we were trying to do 10 or 20 years ago.

We followed the world of we tried to create harmony in our teams. That’s not what we’re seeing anymore. We’re looking for teams – now, it’s not like every day you’re arguing things out – but we’re really asking our people in these great teams to say how can we be doing things better, how can we serve our customers in a more efficient manner, how can we make our products and our processes more efficient, and the great teams that we studied are always on the lookout for those great ideas and they’re not afraid sometimes to have discord in their teams. Unfortunately, a lot of times as managers, if somebody is a little, you know, they won’t swim against the current, “Why are we doing this this way?” – We tend to push them out of our teams. What we found with the great team leaders we studied in this book is that they actually embraced those people. It’s about inclusion, it’s about listening to various voices, and we saw some tremendous success because of that.

BETH OUTZ:  That’s great. You know, one of the things with having leadership and inclusiveness that we’re looking for, how does that reduce turnover in the workplace, and especially whenever you mentioned it earlier, with the different demographics that you have in all workplaces now – gen-xers, millennials, all of those?

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  It’s a great question because when you think about younger employees today – and now we’re going to generalize, and millennials hate it when you generalize more than any group I’ve ever studied – and so with that said, there are still some things we can say broad brush about this generation coming into the workplace now in their twenties, and one of the things that they really do hate is when their voice isn’t heard. They have grown up feeling like, you know, in school they had a voice that’s heard. Where I grew up in school, you sat there, you listened, you didn’t really challenge anything. They have been encouraged to speak up. You look at successful organizations today that are breaking bounds, and even though they’ve had challenges, you look at companies like Uber or Airbnb, and employees were actually encouraged to rate their customers.

That’s never happened before. And so we’re living with a generation that’s coming into the workplace that are used to having their voices heard, and then they come in and we still, most managers, we’re under organizations in a way where “Look, I’ve been doing this a long time, I’ll let you know if I need your opinion, but really I’m never going to need your opinion,” and it’s so demotivating to people.

JOSH ANDERSON:  Yeah, that’s a good point, Adrian. After reading the first chapter of your book, I haven’t really seen any examples of drawbacks from good teamwork and I’m not sure that there really is, but I was just curious if there are any examples that you have seen where the teamwork just didn’t work out the way it had planned to be.

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  Yeah, and the idea is it’s about group dynamics, of course, and there are times, of course, where we all kind of scratch our heads. I mean there are times where we send our best basketball players in the world to the Olympics and they get the bronze medal, and these guys should have crushed everybody by 50 points and what happened, or our best track athletes in the 4×100 relay and all of a sudden they’re not bringing home the gold and we’re all scratching our heads, because collectively they are the most talented athletes but they don’t work together.

And so what we found, and this has been backed up by studies from Amy Edmonson of Harvard, as well as Google found this in a large study at their workplaces, is that people in the best teams have what we call psychological safety. They feel that they can be themselves with their teammates, they’re vulnerable with each other. They speak up about the same amount during the day as everybody else, there’s not certain voices who dominate the conversation. They can throw out even crazy ideas and they won’t be diminished.

They won’t feel like they’re being embarrassed by throwing out crazy ideas because really when you think of innovation, it’s always a crazy idea that helps us innovate and break new ground. So yeah, there absolutely were lots of examples, unfortunately, of poor team performance, and usually… I mean sometimes it’s the players but often it’s the manager who doesn’t know how to break down these bonds and build up the psychological safety that the team needs.

JOSH ANDERSON:  That’s a great point, whether it’s a team leader, a manager, or even the CEO, that leadership position, that role is very, very key and vital. So what are a few simple steps that if you’re a leader that you could do right now to help create more of that teamwork in your business?

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  Yeah, that’s a really good kind of starting question is where do we begin with this, and one of the first things we’ve got to understand is in the past, one of the reasons that we just haven’t seen any movement overall in employee engagement scores, even though we’ve all been worrying about how to get our employees engaged for years, is that we’ve been doing it wrong. We’ve been worrying about the masses. We try to implement employee recognition programs, which are all good but they’re not specific to an individual, or we try to implement pay-for-performance or all these other things.

What we found is that – and I know this sounds like a kind of “du-uh” – but working is a very individual experience. I am going to have very different motivators than you will, Tony, or you will, Josh, or Beth will, Grant will. We’re all going to be very, very different, and what we find is that the best managers we started studying get to know their people on a very individual basis. They get to know what motivates them. I’m, for example, more driven by creativity and working more autonomously while I have a fellow who works and who runs sales with me, his number one motivator is friendship. Well, if my number one motivator is autonomy, who am I going to send to the trade show to get the latest ideas and meet people and connect? Well, it’s obviously going to be Lance who works for me versus myself, and yet we try to force people to all be the same.

They all ought to be team players. Well, some people aren’t, but it doesn’t mean they can’t be great employees for you. We have to figure out what drives our people. They’re going to be more happy, and this comes back to what Beth was asking earlier about retention. We’re going to retain more people if we figure out what their specific drivers are, and I know it sounds like a little bit more work for us but retention increases and engagement just goes through the roof when we figure out this idea. We call it “managing to the one.”

JOSH ANDERSON:  Well, [INDISCERNIBLE 00:12:27], one of the disciplines you mention is “manage to the one” in the book, and that reminded me of the part of the book where you talk about you guys had a consultancy that managers who incorporate that soft side and more inclusiveness in their leadership approach, to quote the book, says “can increase their team’s performance by as much as 30%,” and that is just domination as far as being able to drive that ability to increase productivity as well as getting the team to really feel like they’re valued and they’re actually producing something that is worthwhile and be fully bought in.

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  Yeah, yeah, exactly. There are some pretty startling statistics out there but, you know, I’m a bit of a cynic so I kind of see a statistic and I go, “Yeah, but what about this or that?” And that’s why we put a lot of case studies in here too. You’ll notice in the first chapter there that we had Caterpillar in there, which just has implemented this system throughout its 47 billion dollar company because, you know, and this is a tough-as-nails company, but they had found that managing in these softer ways can produce some tremendous benefits in the organization.

There’s California Pizza Kitchen in that first chapter that’s implemented a lot of these approaches. There’s Tesco from the United Kingdom, a big grocery chain. What we didn’t want to do is go into Google or Apple or eBay and look at organizations like that, we did a couple of those stories, but mostly they are about meet-and-potato organizations that have been around for a long time that just needed to take that next leap, and they found it through their people.

JOSH ANDERSON:  Well, and you brought Caterpillar, I think the number quoted was that out of that one branch that they really took and rooted this whole soft skill approach in the leadership in place, not only was it profitable but it was a little north of 8 million dollars profit for that branch.


JOSH ANDERSON:  That right there, if you’re a hard skillset manager that just needs numbers, numbers, numbers, that’s a pretty big number.

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  Yeah, and a lot of the people listening, maybe they’re wondering too, how do I prove this out to my leadership, and what we usually is we go in like a case, like you would, like an attorney going in and making a case, “Look, here’s what happened here and here’s what happened here,” but we really don’t believe it until we try it ourselves, and that’s what Caterpillar did. They said, “Great, here’s one factory.”

We have tens of thousands of employees, now try it out at one factory,” and they did, and all of a sudden as you say, and 8.8 million dollar increase in revenue that year, 70% increase in customer satisfaction, etcetera, etcetera. Then all of sudden it becomes systemic because they realize this isn’t just a nice thing to do for our people, this is really how we should be managing.

JOSH ANDERSON:  Yeah, for sure, and that kind of goes back to managing the one, like you said. I know here at PFSbrands, we recently took the Kolbe A and what was the other one, the Clifton Gallup? Yeah, the Clifton Gallup Strength Test, just so we all know our strengths and weaknesses and kind of manage to the one like you were talking about earlier.

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  We have actually created, while the strength test is awesome, those personality tests are great, as we work with organizations, a lot of times they’ll have the one assessment that they use and it’s almost like their holy grail, it is the only one true assessment, and we kind of go, you know, “That’s great but there are a lot of other things that other sort of assessments can tell you,” and the one thing we found that was missing with all the assessments was that really there was nothing to help people understand really what they were motivated by.

We could tell you what you are strong at, we could tell you what your personality is and how you’ll react to situations, but there was no scientific assessment out there that helped you understand what your core motivators were. So we actually created, about five years ago now, an assessment called the Motivators Assessment, and it was created by some psychologists, it took us years to develop, we tested it around the world, and now more than 60,000 people have taken this assessment, and it helps you understand really what motivates your work.

We found 23 different human drivers, everything from creativity to learning to excitement to money, and we’re all very, very different. So that’s one of the things we have done and that we talked about in The Best Team Wins is we bring these ideas of these motivators in to help you really understand what drives your people in their work.

JOSH ANDERSON:  Well, we’ve talked about how some people really challenge everything, we’ve talked about managing to the one and stuff, but that really I think speaks loudly to creating an alignment around serving, not just serving your customers but your team ultimately to get to that place there where they know, hey, this is what’s motivating my team, these are their strengths, these are the things that matter to them, so how can I not necessarily profit from that but how can I help them really be the best them so we can be the best team.


BETH OUTZ:  What’s the most surprising number one factor that you found out in a lot of these motivational tests?

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  Well, a couple of things that were kind of surprising to us. The first is that while autonomy is – in fact, Dan Pink wrote a book about drive, human motivators, and he said autonomy is like the number one driver of human beings – and what we found is actually that is true for older workers as we get into our forties, fifties, sixties, but what we found is it’s absolutely not true for people in their twenties. It’s actually one of the bottom motivators. And we so we tend to think of all people as the same – everybody is driven by autonomy!

When actually there are huge generational differences sometimes, and autonomy is one of them where again we think of – and I’m broad-brushing I know – but we think about millennials and they’ve been brought up to work in teams, in school everything was team-based, and all of a sudden we bring them into the workplace and we want you to work in the Toledo office by yourself and we’ll let you know how things are going. One millennial I interviewed said, she said, “Autonomy, that’s terrifying!” And so we tend to think that everybody is the same, another one was recognition. So while recognition is one of the bottom motivators for people later in their careers who are managing other people, it’s one of the top motivators for people in their twenties, so again a little bit of a disconnect.

People each earlier in their careers want to be recognized by their bosses, it affirms them, and yet again there’s been lots of writing about intrinsic motivation, “Oh no, people are more intrinsically motivated.” Well, they are later in their careers, but earlier in their careers they need you, Mr. Boss or Ms. Boss, to reward them and to recognize them and let them know how good they are doing or they will leave you. It’s that simple.

ANTHONY PIERCE:  Wow, yeah. I was curious, where do like financials and things like come into play for motivators?

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  Yeah, what we find is that we thought there would be a big, more, higher proportion of people younger who are motivated by money, and it’s actually a smaller percent. About 11% of millennials have money as a top 7 out of 23 motivators, so call it the top quadrant just for argument’s sake, so only 11%, whereas 67% of millennials have like the term “impact,” they want to make an impact in the world, so two-thirds of millennials have impact as a top 7 motivator out of 23, but only 11% have money as a top motivator. Now, it doesn’t mean that money is not important.

Money we find with younger workers is more of a threshold issue. If you’re not paying me enough to pay my student loan, pay my rent, get a car, I’m probably going to leave you, I’m probably going to move around, but if I pass that threshold and if I’m making enough and you’re giving me things, the top 3 motivators for 20-year-olds for impact, learning, and family which was fascinating. So if I have time for my family, my tribe, my friends, if I’m making an impact and if I’m learning and growing, there’s a much greater probability that I will stay with you and do great work than if it’s just about the money, but you’ve still got to pay me enough to keep me here so it’s a threshold issue and a satisfier more than a motivator.

ANTHONY PIERCE:  That’s definitely fascinating for sure.

JOSH ANDERSON:  Yeah, and especially you talk in the book about how, again, speaking in generalities here, but millennials will move through a job faster, about a year-and-a-half I believe is what was quoted, versus someone old like me who might stick around for five, six, seven years. Do you think that that threshold, when we were just talking about those things there, do you think that threshold is more imperative to helping build those younger teams, those generational teams, or do you think that that’s something that as long as we’re feeding the impact and you make sure they have enough time to do what they want to do with their family and stuff, that money maybe is going to be less of an issue?

I mean, I know you said that they’ll probably leave you, but if you feed those other three more, as someone who looks at the money motivator side, do you think you can hold people in today’s workforce without the money side?

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  Yeah, no, it’s a good question because we’re hearing a lot of different themes coming. When you look back to the Occupy Wall Street movement, a lot of us older folks think it was about younger people just feeling disenfranchised, they’re mad at the world about we didn’t know what, so as I interviewed a lot of younger people for the book, what they said was “No, no, you’re getting it.

What we did was we entered the working world and we found ourselves working for low wages, being ignored, we had no voice, we felt disenfranchised, we felt unimportant, and we were sort of kicking against what we were finding.” So the idea to focus simply on compensation, you’ll never win, there’s always going to be somebody who will pay more, and that’s why these ideas about creating a learning organization, creating an organization where people understand the mission and how they’re contributing to it in their specific way, making sure they have time off for their family.

So the CEO of Bell Helicopter, one of the people we interviewed for the book, told us, he said, “We had a big project this last holiday season, and I had a group of people who needed to work on this big pitch and I said, ‘Look, guys, you have to work over the holidays but I’m going to pay you this huge bonus January 1st if you do this for me.’” He said, “My older workers, to a person, said ‘Yeah, we’ll do it,’” he said, “my millennials, to a person, said ‘no.’ They said, ‘I got family obligations, I’m doing stuff, I’m doing fun things with my friends, no thanks.’” And he said, “It was eye-opening for me!”

He said, “I couldn’t pay them enough to do this,” and so he said, “I realized we have to change the way we manage this new generation, they’re looking for different things than we were.” It’s a good question though, will they get to a different point when they have mortgages and kids and etcetera? Yeah, perhaps, generations and all of us do change and not everybody is the same, so this is one little case but our statistics are showing that there’s some really interesting things we shouldn’t ignore as manages.

JOSH ANDERSON:  Yeah, that’s crazy fascinating, we could talk about that all day. Anything to add, Tony?

ANTHONY PIERCE:  Well, I just curious on the flip side of when you look at like the gen-xers, they do have mortgages typically now, they do have kids, and you said those two guys there that took the money, what about the value that you have to balance with them as well? I mean I know you have to build your workforce for the future for sustainability, but at the same time what do you suggest that leaders look at to keep that balance there because not everything is going to suit everybody, obviously, and there’s not one size fits all?

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  Right, and one of the worries sometimes, it’s a good question because a lot of times, sometimes people will say, “Okay, now managers will tell me we’re going to be pandling to our younger workers,” you know, but what we find is actually as we start doing a few things that will help our younger workers, it actually helps everybody because again, younger workers are looking for more recognition for instance. Well, nobody is going to be offended by you giving out more recognition, in fact they’ll be typically appreciative. Even though it may not be one of their stronger motivators when they get a little older, nobody minds being thanked, so as we start doing more of that as a leader, it actually helps all of our teams, even the gen-x and the boomers.

When you think of, okay, we’re going to more directly relevant learning and career development for our people. Again, yes, it’s going to help our millennials but it’s going to help all of our people. It’s a benefit to everybody to do that. If we think about that idea of the impact, okay, we’re going to more clearly articulate the meaning of our work, what’s our why here, again, it’s going to help everybody. So what we found is that as managers and as leaders start looking at these ideas to help their younger workers, it really helps everybody in their teams.

JOSH ANDERSON:  Yeah, for sure. Now Adrian, kind of to keep us going along here so we’re not here for three hours, we could be because this has been a fascinating conversation, we’re going to switch it over three questions we ask every single person we interview so it’s kind of like a lightening round, so to speak, so we’re going to get started.

BETH OUTZ:  Okay, so Adrian, what is the one book that you would recommend to read and why?

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  Okay, not one of mine, right?

JOSH ANDERSON:  Hey, it could be.

BETH OUTZ:  It could be, whichever one you feel.

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  No, no, we’ve talked enough about my book. You know, we’re actually just starting a new book right now with a fellow named Marshall Goldsmith, who is a wonderful leadership thinker, and he wrote a book called What Got You Here Won’t Get You There, and it’s a great book every leader should read.

JOSH ANDERSON:  That’s awesome, yeah.

ANTHONY PIERCE:  Hey, Adrian, and real quick, I just want to give a shout-out to you, I’ve heard a lot of negative descriptions of millennials but that was the best one I’ve heard so far.

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  Oh good. Yeah, we actually think millennials have a lot to bring to the workplace, so they know technology, they’ve got energy, they’ve got creativity. We’ve got to learn how to really capitalize on this amazing generation that is coming in.

GRANT SCHULTE:  For sure, so my question for you, what do you feel is a marketing or business trend we will see moving forward in 2019?

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  Probably sticking with our theme here of people, we are hearing much more about culture change. You know, sometimes people ask me, “Oh, my gosh, you must work with a lot of really diseased cultures that call you in.” Like no, they never call me.

What we do, we get called in by the good cultures who want to get better and they want to get great, but I’m hearing so much more, and we’re getting asked to speak and help consult so much on culture because if you don’t get the culture right, nothing really works right. So you look at things at are happening, when there’s embarrassing sort of situations – you know, I’m thinking of USC here, the medical school there or other things that kind of go on – when you look back, it’s really we didn’t create the culture we needed.

When we do, those things typically, people who are not living up to those, you know, things in our culture get pushed out, and so really culture I think is going to be, and people will be the movement of the next few years here.

GRANT SCHULTE:  And I have one other question for you as well, so what is the one piece of advice that you would give any new entrepreneur?

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  You know, we’ve built several little businesses here, and I know this maybe a little silly little thing but lately and it’s “assume positive intent”. The other day, I look on my website and something that was really important to me had dropped off, and so I start talking with my assistant or I kind of go, “Hey, what the heck’s going on here? My web guy, he’s trying to bring down the business!” And you start kind of get going, you know how you do that?


ADRIAN GOSTICK:  And then I stopped, and I remembered something we’ve been working is to assume positive intent, so I thought, okay, I’m just going to pick up the phone. I pick up my phone, I talk to my web guy and he says, “That happened, really?” And we start talking it through. Well, even if he had done it, which he hadn’t, it was a complete honest mistake, but even if he had, I’m sure he would still be trying to make the business better, it wasn’t something he was trying to do to bring me down, but as human beings, we tend to feel like that. We tend to think negative whenever anything happens. “I am the only one around here who can do anything right, I’m the only smart one, is anybody…,” da-da-da.

We tend to think this, and I’ve been trying to teach myself, you know, instead of jumping to these kinds of conclusions, to assume positive intent, pick up the phone, get to the bottom of things, find out the facts, talk to others, and 99 times out of 100 there was no negative intent. We’re all trying to do the right thing for the right reasons. So that’s one thing that would sort of help you, I think it would help you with your relationships with your people in your organization as well as your family members, assume positive intent.

JOSH ANDERSON:  That’s actually really great advice. In fact, when you were talking about that, everyone in the room looked at me.

JOSH ANDERSON:  Well, Adrian, we’ve had a great conversation today, and if any of our listeners want to reach out to you, where can they get a hold of you at?

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  Oh, it’s really easy, or my website is or pick up a copy of The Best Team Wins, and thank you so much, folks, for having me on. It’s been a lot of fun.

JOSH ANDERSON:  Thank you very much, we’ve had a great conversation.

BETH OUTZ:  Yeah, we truly appreciate the time you took away to interview with us today.

JOSH ANDERSON:  Yeah, this has been awesome, and I tell you, if you haven’t read any of Adrian’s books, I highly recommend this one of course that we talked about today¸ The Best Team Wins, and an oldie but a fabulous one in The Levity Effect.

ANTHONY PIERCE:  Yeah, that book was funny.

JOSH ANDERSON:  That book was really, really funny, it was awesome, and really appreciate your time.

ADRIAN GOSTICK:  Well, thank you, everyone, and we’ll hopefully talk soon.

JOSH ANDERSON:  Yeah, for sure, and for all of our listeners out there today, for Josh, Beth, Tony, Grant, and QSR Nation, we’ll talk to you next week.